The co-operative movement in Kerala has a long history .Co-operative Movement in Kerala started even before the formation of Kerala state. There were three administrative units in the erstwhile Kerala- viz, Travancore, Cochin and Malabar. In 1949, Travancore and Cochin merged in to a single state known as Travancore- Cochin State. Kerala state was formed in 1956 by merging all the three units.
Co-operative Movement in Travancore
In Travancore the first co-operative society registered under the Travancore Co-operative Societies Act, 1914 was Trivandrum Central Co-operative Bank. Then it was formed as the present Kerala State Co-operative Bank. A Central Bank was also formed for financing primary co-operative credit societies. The societies were registered with unlimited liability. But recovery of loans became a problem and a number of societies were liquidated because of excess liability over assets. Then the liability of the societies was changed in to ‘limited’ from 1918 onwards. Land Mortgage Bank was formed in 1932 to provide long-term loans for a period of 10 to 20 years on the security of land.
Co-operative Movement in Cochin
The Cochin Co-operative Societies Act was enacted in 1913. The first co-operative society registered under this Act was ‘Advanced Co-operative Society’. It was a credit society with unlimited liability. The Cochin Central Co-operative Bank was formed in 1918; it was based on British co-operative movement. The long term loans were supplied by Cochin Central Co-operative and Mortgage Bank. The area of operation was limited to Cochin.
Co-operative Movement in Malabar
Malabar district and Kasrgod Taluk was governed by Madras Co-operative Societies Act of 1932. In Malabar, there were producers and consumers co-operative societies having large share capital. The Malabar Co-operative Central Bank registered in 1917 at Calicut rendered much service in providing loans to primary co-operatives
Travancore-Cochin Co-operative Societies Act of 1951
Travancore-Cochin state came into existence in 1949. It was found necessary to have a uniform co-operative law applicable in the entire Travancore-Cochin area. In 1951, Travancore-Cochin Co-operative Societies Act was passed. This Act was in force till Kerala Co-operative Societies Act came into force in 1969
Kerala Co-operative Societies Act of 1969
All states in India have its own Acts on Co-operation. All laws are written on the basis of Indian Co-operative Societies Act 1904 and 1912. When Travancore, Kochi and Malabar were integrated to form the kerala state, a common co-operative Law became inevitable. Accordingly, The Kerala Co-operative Societies Act came into existence on 15 thMay 1969.There after, the Co-operative Act in Kerala was revised and modified on various stages.